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Notes 1-5

For the half year ended 30 June 2008

4. Operating costs and share of results of associates

Operating costs include:

Six months
ended
30 June
2008
£m
Six months
ended
30 June
2007
£m
Year ended
31 December
2007
£m
Amortisation and impairment
of acquired intangible assets
25.5 17.1 40.3
Goodwill impairment 20.0 29.0 44.1
Goodwill write-down relating to
utilisation of pre-acquisition tax losses
0.7 1.0 1.7
Gains on disposal of investments (3.6) (3.0) (3.4)
Write-downs of investments 12.3
Share-based incentive plans
(including share options)
30.2 33.3 62.4
Other operating costs 2,696.1 2,372.8 4,900.6
2,781.2 2,450.2 5,045.7

The goodwill impairment charge of £20.0 million (30 June 2007: £29.0 million) relates to a number of under-performing businesses in the Group. In certain markets, the impact of current local economic conditions and trading circumstances on these businesses is sufficiently severe to indicate an impairment to the carrying value of goodwill. The Directors will reassess the need for any further impairment write-downs at year end.

Share of results of associates include:

Six months
ended
30 June
2008
£m
Six months
ended
30 June
2007
£m
Year ended
31 December
2007
£m
Share of profit before interest
and taxation
32.8 31.5 65.8
Share of exceptional gains 0.8
Share of interest and minority interest 0.2 0.7 0.5
Share of taxation (12.3) (12.7) (25.7)
20.7 19.5 41.4