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Stack of Books

Cherries
oil on canvas
22 x 20 in
1981

Penny Machines
oil on canvas
23¾ x 29¾ in
1961

Stack of Books
oil on canvas
30 x 24 in
n.d.

Seven Suckers
oil on canvas
19 x 23 in
1970

Twin Jackpots
oil on canvas
30 x 46 in
1962

Ties
oil on canvas
20 x 26 in
1980

Cake Slices
oil on canvas
20 x 16 in
n.d.

Too much stuff, too few customers

Most sectors are facing problems similar to those in the car and truck industry, where companies can still make 80 million units and consumers buy 60 million. This happens even after recent rationalisation among the Big Three in Detroit. (Amazingly, it seems that to be successful in capitalist America, you have to take government money and go into Chapter 11 bankruptcy!) The contraction in supply in the US has been balanced by expansion in China, India and South Korea. Geely buys Volvo, Tata buys Land Rover and Jaguar, Hyundai becomes the new automobile Samsung.

It is difficult to find many cases where overcapacity is not a big, long-term issue. Tequila, perhaps, where it takes seven years to grow the herb. Or high fashion companies like Rolex and Hermes, where historically supply is limited – although conspicuous consumption is less acceptable after the fiscal crisis. It is also true that commodity-based industries such as oil and steel faced undercapacity issues for some time, being overwhelmed by Indian and Chinese demand.

Overcapacity issues are particularly difficult to deal with in politically-sensitive industries like automobiles. Governments are not enthusiastic about shutting down capacity and increasing unemployment. They also like to increase capacity by offering inducements to locate new production facilities in development regions. Thus the best thing for the European car industry would probably have been for GM to absorb Fiat’s production capability. But Silvio Berlusconi, Italy’s Prime Minister, could not countenance more unemployment in the Mezzogiorno. The same issue faced the British government with Rover, resulting in it subsidising workers to stay in work during the 2005 election campaign and it faced the Obama administration with GM and Chrysler.

The critical issue in the 19th and 20th centuries was how to produce goods and services and to make sure they reached the consumer. In the 21st century, it is convincing the consumer to purchase products, services or brands in the first place. In such circumstances, differentiation becomes critically important and differentiation is what our business is about.

Historically, maintaining technical or product differences was easier. Today, keeping a technological lead is difficult. Product life cycles are being shortened and brand cycles lengthened. Here is another example from the car industry. Less than a decade ago it took, perhaps, five years to design, produce and market a car. Today, it can be done in 18 months. Facing faster and more aggressive Japanese, South Korean and German manufacturers, the Americans have been obliged to play catch-up. In future, Chinese and Indian manufacturers will stimulate further response.

So intangible differentiation is becoming more important. Psychological, lifestyle and emotional differences are significant. The suit or dress you wear, the car you drive, the holidays you take, how you spend your leisure time – all say a lot about your personality and preferences. Some say such intangible appeal is unsavoury. Preying on people’s vulnerabilities, it is argued, is unethical. Not so. We believe that fulfilling people’s desires or dreams is almost always justifiable and satisfying for the consumer – and it is a key role for the advertising and marketing services industry.

Advertising categories
Source: GroupM; Kantar
*
These categories together represent 64% of measured ad investment in a sample of 17 countries representing 83% of 2009 global ad investment.

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