Financial glossary

Term used in Annual Report US equivalent or brief description
Allotted Issued
ADRs/ADSs American Depositary Receipts/American Depositary Shares. The Group uses the terms ADR and ADS interchangeably. One ADR/ADS represents five ordinary shares
Average net debt and net debt Average net debt is calculated as the average daily net bank borrowings of the Group, derived from the Group’s automated banking system. Net debt at a period end is calculated as the sum of the net bank borrowings of the Group, derived from the cash ledgers and accounts in the balance sheet
Billings Billings comprise the gross amounts billed to clients in respect of commission-based/fee-based income together with the total of other fees earned
Called-up share capital Ordinary shares, issued and fully paid
Capital allowances Tax term equivalent to US tax depreciation allowances
Combined Code The ‘Principles of Good Governance’ and the provisions of the ‘Code of Best Practice’ issued by the Hampel Committee on Corporate Governance and the London Stock Exchange
Constant currency The Group uses US dollar-based, constant currency models to measure performance. These are calculated by applying budgeted 2008 exchange rates to local currency reported results for the current and prior year. This gives a US dollar-denominated income statement and balance sheet which exclude any variances attributable to foreign exchange rate movements
ESOP Employee share ownership plan
Estimated net new billings Net new billings represent the estimated annualised impact on billings of new business gained from both existing and new clients, net of existing client business lost. The estimated impact is based upon initial assessments of the clients’ media budgets, which may not necessarily result in actual billings of the same amount
EURIBOR The euro area inter-bank offered rate for euro deposits
Finance lease Capital lease
Free cash flow Free cash flow is calculated as headline operating profit before non cash charges for share-based incentive plans, depreciation of property, plant and equipment and amortisation of other intangible assets, including dividends received from associates, interest received, investment income received, proceeds from the issue of shares, and proceeds from the disposal of property, plant and equipment, less corporation and overseas tax paid, interest and similar charges paid, dividends paid to minority shareholders in subsidiary undertakings, purchases of property, plant and equipment and purchases of other intangible assets
Freehold Ownership with absolute rights in perpetuity
Hampel Committee UK committee on corporate governance established in November 1995 to review the implementation of the findings of the Cadbury and Greenbury Committees
Headline earnings Headline PBT less taxation (excluding net deferred tax credit in relation to the amortisation of acquired intangible assets and other goodwill items) and minority interests
Headline EBITDA Profit before finance income/costs, taxation, investment gains/losses and write-downs, goodwill impairment and other goodwill write-downs, amortisation and impairment of intangible assets, share of exceptional losses/gains of associates, costs incurred in 2008 in changing the corporate structure of the Group and depreciation of property, plant and equipment
Headline operating profit PBIT excluding share of results of associates before investment gains/losses and write-downs, goodwill impairment and other goodwill write-downs, and amortisation and impairment of acquired intangible assets and costs incurred in 2008 in changing the corporate structure of the Group
Headline PBIT Profit before finance income/costs, taxation, investment gains/losses and write-downs, goodwill impairment and other goodwill write-downs, and amortisation and impairment of acquired intangible assets, share of exceptional losses/gains of associates and costs incurred in 2008 in changing the corporate structure of the Group
Headline PBT Profit before taxation, investment gains/losses and write-downs, goodwill impairment and other goodwill write-downs, amortisation and impairment of acquired intangible assets, share of exceptional losses/gains of associates, costs incurred in 2008 in changing the corporate structure of the Group and losses/gains arising from the revaluation of financial instruments
Higgs Report Report in the UK by Derek Higgs on the role and effectiveness of non-executive directors
IFRS/IAS International Financial Reporting Standard/International Accounting Standard
LIBOR The London inter-bank offered rate
Operating margin Headline PBIT as a percentage of revenue
Profit Income
Profit attributable to equity holders of the parent Net income
Pro forma (‘like-for-like’) Pro forma comparisons are calculated as follows: current year, constant currency actual results (which include acquisitions from the relevant date of completion) are compared with prior year, constant currency actual results, adjusted to include the results of acquisitions for the commensurate period in the prior year. The Group uses the terms ‘pro forma’ and ‘like-for-like’ interchangeably
Provision against deferred tax assets Valuation allowance
Sarbanes-Oxley Act An Act passed in the US to protect investors by improving the accuracy and reliability of corporate disclosures made pursuant to the securities laws, and for other purposes
Scheme of Arrangement The scheme of arrangement on 19 November 2008 between WPP 2008 Limited (formerly WPP Group plc) and its share owners under Part 26 of the Companies Act 2006, as sanctioned by the High Court, whereby all the issued shares in WPP 2008 Ltd were cancelled and the same number were issued to WPP plc in consideration for the allotment to share owners of 1 ordinary share in WPP plc for each ordinary share in WPP 2008 Ltd
Share capital Ordinary shares, capital stock or common stock issued and fully paid
Share premium account Additional paid-in capital or paid-in surplus (not distributable)
Shares in issue Shares outstanding
Short leasehold A short lease is where the portion of the term remaining unexpired at the end of the financial year is less than 50 years
Smith Report Report in the UK by Sir Robert Smith on the role of audit committees
SORIE Consolidated statement of recognised income and expense
Turnbull Report Guidance issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England & Wales on the implementation of the internal control requirements of the Combined Code on Corporate Governance at the request of the London Stock Exchange

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