Including associates, the Group had over 110,000 full-time people in over 2,000 offices in 106 countries at 31 December 2007. It services over 340 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, over one-half of the NASDAQ 100 and over 30 of the Fortune e-50. Over 600 clients are served in three distinct disciplines. More than 370 clients are served in four disciplines and these clients account for 58% of Group revenues. The Group also works with over 270 clients in six or more countries.
These statistics reflect the increasing opportunities for developing client relationships between activities nationally, internationally and by function. The Group estimates that over 35% of new assignments in the year were generated through the joint development of opportunities by two or more Group companies. New integration mechanisms, sensitive to global and local opportunities, including WPP Global Client Leaders and Country Managers, continue to be developed. There is an increasing number of major client creative and integration opportunities at a Group level. 2007 saw, for instance, the development of a new agency, in successful competition against all our major competitors, specifically to address the objectives of one high technology client.
Despite the recent financial crisis, the world economy continued to grow in 2007, after the recovery in both 2003 and 2004, driven by the US, Asia Pacific, Latin America, the Middle East, Russia and the other CIS countries. As a result, your Company has performed again at record levels. In addition, Africa also showed significant signs of growth, no doubt stimulated by Chinese interest and investment and is increasingly becoming a continent of opportunity. The FIFA World Cup in South Africa in 2010 will have a significant impact in focusing further attention on the African continent.
Whilst like-for-like revenues have grown beyond market expectations, like-for-like average headcount has grown less. Following this productivity improvement, the Group's operating margin at post-incentive levels has improved. In addition, given improved levels of operating profit and margin, incentive pools and variable staff costs are now at around the highest levels. This will improve operational gearing and flexibility in 2008 and beyond.
As usual, the budgets for 2008 have been prepared on a prudent basis, largely excluding new business, particularly in Advertising and Media Investment Management. They predict improvements in like-for-like revenues at even higher levels than at this time in 2007 (which were around 4.0% to 4.5%), with balanced growth in the first and second half of the year. They also indicate marketing services revenues growing faster than Advertising and Media Investment Management. In the first quarter of 2008 like-for-like revenues were up 4.8%. On the basis of these data, 2008 should be at least as good as 2007.
Despite the severe financial crisis, the 'real' economy continues to grow and our clients continue to expand, particularly in the BRICs and the 'Next 11' markets, addressing the twin opportunities of geographical expansion and technological change.
However, it seems inevitable that the 'real' world will at some point in time be affected by the private equity, sub-prime, insurance monoline, and housing market crises, that we have seen. This may result in a reduction of marketing budgets and revenues, and/or impair the collection of amounts owing from some clients. In our view, this seems more likely to be in 2009, when a slow-down (not a recession) in the US will be hard to avoid. The decoupling theories will also be challenged, as China may pause a little, after the stimulation of the Beijing Olympics, and the world continues to catch cold when America sneezes – if not influenza, as it used to be.
2010 may be a different story, however, with the FIFA World Cup in South Africa, the Winter Olympics in Vancouver and the mid-term Congressional elections in the US, stimulating economic activity.
Concerns remain over the Middle East, oil and commodity prices, the twin deficits of the US economy and inflation in general. Despite significant increases in prices of raw material inputs, clients, particularly FMCG or packaged goods companies, have been able to pass on cost increases so far in the form of price increases, as inflation quickens. Worldwide advertising and marketing services spending is set to rise by at least 4% in 2008, with your company well positioned to take market share. Although growth in the world economy continues to be led by Asia Pacific, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East, Eastern and Central Europe, even Western Continental Europe may show some improvement.
2008 should also benefit from the build-up to the US presidential elections and the Beijing Olympics, which, as a maxi-quadrennial year, should be a good one, buoyed by heavy US political advertising as the multiple candidates slug it out and by the European Football Championships.
In the short term, growth in advertising and marketing services expenditure may remain in low to medium single digit territory, given the historically low inflationary environment and the fear of inflation growing, concentrating distribution and consequent lack of pricing power. In this climate, procurement pressure continues (but less so in new media) and the significant proportion of fee remuneration dampens revenue growth on cyclical upturns (and moderates on downturns). However, there continues to be significant opportunities in the area of outsourcing clients' marketing activities, consolidating clients' budgets and capitalising on competitive weaknesses.
In addition, spending amongst the packaged goods, pharmaceutical, oil and energy, government (the government continues to be one of the largest advertisers in the UK market) and price-value retail sectors, which remained relatively resilient in the recession of 2001 and 2002, have been buttressed by increased activity in previously recession-affected sectors like technology, financial services, media and entertainment and telecommunications.
In the long term, the outlook appears very favourable. Overcapacity of production in most sectors and the shortage of human capital, the developments in new technologies and media, the growth in importance of internal communications, the need to influence distribution, and the new focus on corporate responsibility issues such as climate change, underpin the need for our clients to continue to differentiate their products and services both tangibly and intangibly.
Moreover, the continuing growth of the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China), 'Next 11' and other faster-growing geographical markets, will add significant opportunities in Asia Pacific, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe. Advertising and marketing services expenditure as a proportion of gross national product should resume its growth and burst through the cyclical high established in 2000.
Given these short term and long term trends, your Company has three strategic priorities. In the short term, to continue to capitalise on the 2004 to 2007 up-turn and deal with any slow-downs; in the medium term, to continue to successfully integrate acquired companies; and finally, in the long term, to continue to develop its businesses in the faster-growing geographical areas of Asia Pacific, Latin America, Africa and the Middle East, and Central and Eastern Europe and in the faster-growing functional areas of marketing services, particularly direct, internet, interactive and market research.
Incentive plans for 2008 will again focus more on operating profit growth than historically, in order to stimulate top-line growth, particularly in information, insight and consultancy, although objectives will continue to include operating margin improvement, improvement in staff costs to revenue ratios and qualitative Group objectives, including co-ordination, talent management and succession planning.
Group finance director